Strona archiwalna ¶p. województwa kaliskiego
The Kalisz district, one
of 49 in Poland, occupies an area of 6512 sq. km (2,1% of Polan's area) and belongs to the
middle-size districts. It lies almost entirely in the south - eastern part of Greater
Poland Lowland and only the south - western edges of it constitutes the part of Silesia
Lowland. The Kalisz district frontier line, running for 520 km, borders on the following
districts: Leszno and Wrocław on the West, Opole and Częstochowa on the south, Sieradz
on the east and finally Konin and Poznań on the nort.The entire Kalisz district is
located on the lowland area, which means that its heights do not exceed 300 meters. The
highest hill of the region are Ostrzeszów Heights stretching for 40 km in lenght, Wysocki
Heights near Ostrów Wielkopolski and Żerków Heights in the north. The district's main
rivers are Prosna, Obra, Lutynia and Barycz. Prosna, Warta river left tributary, is 229 km
long and flows across the district for 126 km starting at Dzietrzkowice village in the
south and ending with its mouth in Warta river in the north.
The whole area of the Kalisz district is inhabited by 720 thousand
peple of whom 46,8% live in urban areas. Most of 20 towns date back to the 14th and the
16th centuries and the biggest of them are located along two major railways. All towns
exceeding 10 000 inhabitants except Kępno were founded in the north of the region. These
towns are: Kalisz, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Krotoszyn and Jarocin; but still dominant in
terms of number are smaller, below 5,000 inhabitants which make 50% of whole quantity.
Most of villages here date back to the Middle Ages. In the 15th and 16th cent. was the
greatest rural development in the neighbourhood of Kalisz, KoĽmin and Krotoszyn. Not
until the 18th and the 19th centuries were the regions around Odolanów, Grabów, Pleszew
and Kępno inhabited. The smallest villages bellow 350 inhabitants can be found in forest
areas of the north-east.
Kalisz district, established in 1975 possesses a secular tradition of separate administrative entity. In the 11th and the 12th centuries Kalisz was a stronghold town. In the 13th century Kalisz became the capital of the principality and from the 15th century of the province devided into six smaller administrative district. The province covered the area of 33,000 sq. km. In 1768 in connection with the establishment of Gniezno province, 3 administrative districts were excluded from Kalisz province and in 1793 the province was incorporated to Prussia due to the 1st partition of Poland. After that a new Kalisz department was created. It survived till the year 1815 when under the regulations of the Congress of Vienna it was divided (by the line of Prosna river) between Russia and Prussia. Ostrów, Ostrzeszów, Odolanów, Pleszew entered the Grand Duchy of Poznań (which belonged to Prussia) the rest of the territory was incorporated into the lands under the Russian rule. In 1873 new Kalisz district was established. After regaining the independence by Poland in 1918, Kalisz lost its status of local administrative center and became a part of ŁódĽ district and from 1938, of Poznań district. During the World War II the Greater Poznań and Kalisz were incorporated into The Third Reich. In 1975 Kalisz became a capital of district again.
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